Cyanine Renaissance: Tailoring the Properties to Applications




Bioimaging, Cyanine, Fluorescence, Near-infrared, Photocage, Zincke chemistry


In this account, we provide an overview of the applications that arose from the recently developed synthetic methodology that delivers heptamethine cyanines (Cy7) substituted at the central chain. The ability to easily introduce and manipulate various substituents in different substitution patterns along the cyanine chain enabled rational tailoring of the photophysical and photochemical properties. Exercising this control over the structure–property relationship proved to have a substantial impact in the field of cyanine dyes and was swiftly harnessed in a number of emerging applications in distinct areas, including fluorescent probes, biosensors, dye-sensitized upconversion nanoparticles, phototruncation of cyanines and photocages. While this method unlocked a number of new avenues, many synthetic challenges remain to be conquered in order to fully capitalize on the potential of cyanines, and we provide a short perspective that summarizes them at the end of this manuscript.




How to Cite

H. Janeková, M. Russo, P. Štacko, Chimia 2022, 76, 763, DOI: 10.2533/chimia.2022.763.